Carboxylic acid Functional Group Transformation

Functional Group Transformation of Carboxylic acid is listed here for students’ help. This collection helps students in retrosynthesis and synthesis of organic molecules. Passerini multicomponent reaction Isocyanides react with carboxylic acids and carbonyl compounds to provide α-acyloxycarboxamides. Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky reaction Preparation of α-halo carboxylic acids by treating a carboxylic acid with halogen at elevated temperatures in […]

ENONE Functional Group Transformation

Functional Group Transformation of ENONE is listed here for students’ help. This collection helps students in retrosynthesis and synthesis of organic molecules. Wacker oxidation α,β-unsaturated ketones and esters are oxidized regioselectively to 1,3-Dicarbonyl compounds using catalytic amounts of Na2PdCl4 and TBHP or H2O2 as co-oxidants Stetter reaction The addition of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes across […]

DDQ: Dehydrogenation and Cyclization

DDQ (2 3-dichloro-5 6-dicyano-1 4-benzoquinone) is highly electron-deficient and readily performs dehydrogenation and cyclization. Also used to bring aromaticity in natural products and insertion of the carbonyl group. The substrate must have allylic and benzylic hydrogens to perform dehydrogenation by DDQ. One equivalent DDQ produces one double bond. Different important applications of DDQ are as […]

Aluminum isopropoxide (Oppenauer Oxidation)

Oppenauer oxidation uses metal alkoxides (aluminum isopropoxide) for the oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols with ketones. Ketones act as hydrogen acceptors. This method used in the synthesis of natural products. The reaction conditions are mild, most functional groups are tolerated (alkenes, alkynes, esters, amides, etc.) Isomerization of double bond in oppenauer oxidation, to get […]

Homotopic Enantiotopic Diastereotopic Protons

Based on symmetry criteria protons are classified into three types using NMR splitting. They are homotopic, enantiotopic and diastereotopic protons. This article details the minute characteristic difference between each type of proton. Homotopic protons Symmetry: Protons interchangeable with Cn Symmetry NMR: both protons are chemically equivalent Replacement: protons attached carbon should be achiral before and […]